[Vol. 23 No. 1] DIPLOMATIC PRIORITIES: CHANGES IN THE TANG BESTOWAL OF TITLES ON SILLA AND PARHAE
DIPLOMATIC PRIORITIES: CHANGES IN THE TANG BESTOWAL OF TITLES ON SILLA AND PARHAE
Vol. 23 No. 1
pp. 1~22 (all 22 pages)
Silla, Parhae, Tang, bestowed titles, subordinated prefecture
A typical model explaining pre-modern international relationships in East Asia is the tribute system in which Chinese emperors granted office titles to monarchs of surrounding states who in turn paid tribute to the Chinese throne. This model, which depends on the historical records of the state bestowing titles, cannot fully explain the international relationships centering on China for it fails to account for the internal conditions of the surrounding states. This study examines changes in the Tang bestowal of titles to determine the position and status of Silla and Parhae in the world order for which Tang hoped. The Tang bestowal of titles reflected its intended world order and its policy for implementing that order. The bestowed titles had to be changed if Tang intentions were not realized. Changes in Tang titles reflect Silla and Parhae responses to Tang policy; Tang upgraded titles when Silla and Parhae accepted Tang policies and downgraded them when they resisted.